Guyana: the forever forest

One of the few remaining unexplored frontiers of tourism, Guyana is South America’s biggest little secret. Sophie Stafford saw this pint-sized paradise of pristine rainforest through the eyes of the native Amerindians.


Guyana is becoming famous for its unspoilt rainforests and might waterfalls


One of the few remaining unexplored frontiers of tourism, Guyana is South America’s biggest little secret. Sophie Stafford saw this pint-sized paradise of pristine rainforest through the eyes of the native Amerindians.

From the summit of Turtle Mountain, the emerald forest below stretched continuously in all directions to the hazy mountain ranges on the horizon, its dense green surface split only by the lazy curves of the Essequibo River.

The view was breathtaking, not least because it had taken me two hours to climb the steep, winding path to the 300-metre peak, up rocky steps made slippery by lush mosses. Of course, I blamed the 30˚C heat and forest humidity for my discomfort, not the fact that I didn’t get round to renewing my gym membership this year. The red faces of my travelling companions confirmed that, apparently, neither did they! 


Little garden of Eden

In November, I was invited to explore Guyana, one of South America’s smallest and least known countries, a pocket-sized paradise squashed between Venezuela, Suriname and Brazil.

Guyana is one of those places that few people have heard of, and as a result it receives only about 2,000 tourists a year. This is probably why 85 per cent of its land mass is still covered by pristine tropical rainforest – one of the last four surviving in the world (the others being the Congo, New Guinea and Amazonia).

Iwokrama Forest covers a million acres, yet forms just a small part of this wilderness. It sits on one of the oldest exposed rock surfaces in the world and has a timeless, almost prehistoric feel. More than 1,000 species of tree crowd shoulder to shoulder here, their dense canopy allowing a gentle light to filter down to the forest floor.

In the stillness, the flight of a blue morpho butterfly is a dazzling flash of azure, while the silence is broken only by the zingy, electric wolf-whistles of the screaming piha, an otherwise dowdy brown bird.


Common morpho butterflies have been a firm favourite for collectors



Tribe lands

The forest is the heart and home of nine native Amerindian tribes – the Arawak, Macushi, Arikuna, Carib, Wai-Wai, Akawayo, Warau, Wapishana and Patamona.

“When I was a child, my father told me ‘the forest is your supermarket,’” explained Ron Allicock, our Macushi guide, a slim, studious-looking young man with small, round glasses and a knack for storytelling. “Everything you need – clothes, food, medicine – is here.” Ron knows the trees that provide cures for everything from constipation to childbirth, which fruits are edible, which lianas make the strongest ropes and which palm fronds knit together to make a waterproof shelter.

For years, the forest also provided Ron’s father with a livelihood, harvesting the sap of the purple heart – or balata – tree, whose natural latex was once used to cover golfballs, among other things. Though it has since been replaced by synthetic products, many of the tallest trees at Iwokrama still bear the healing scars of parallel diagonal slash marks high up on their trunks.


Paradise plundered

But the forest’s bounty was also harvested ruthlessly. Guyana was once one of the main exporters of wild birds, reptiles and fish for the pet trade. Archer, the Amerindian guide at the Iwokrama Canopy Walkway, would catch macaws by waiting in a fruit tree for the birds to come and feed, or mimicking the cries of a distressed juvenile to attract anxious parents, and then lassoing them with a noose. He sold the birds into a life of captivity for 4,000 Guyanese dollars (£15).

Today, the trade in wildlife is regulated by CITES, so Guyana’s animal population is finding new ways to earn its keep. “When the Government first told us we had to protect our forest, I couldn’t understand why,” said Ron. “I believed that all countries had the same resources. It was only when I travelled that I realised it’s not the same everywhere – you have only concrete jungles. This is why Guyana is so special.”


Harpy eagles usually prey on sloths, monkeys and opposums


Through fresh eyes

But it took the arrival of the first tourists in the 1990s to make Ron truly appreciate the wild riches of his home. When he introduced foreigners to the forest, he was astonished by their reactions.

"They were amazed and awed by the colourful birds I took for granted,” he said. As they gawped at the wildlife, he gawped at them. Their delight made him interested in learning more about the species he saw every day. “I never believed I could be paid for taking people into the forest until the tourists came.

It is probably because Guyana was slow to recognise its natural assets, and their potential as a tourist attraction, that it still has virtually intact virgin rainforest and healthy populations of species that are endangered (and hard to see) elsewhere.

Guyana boasts the largest and most powerful eagle in the Americas – the harpy; the biggest cat in the New World – the jaguar; the world’s largest otter – the giant; as well as the biggest freshwater fish on Earth – the three-metre long, prehistoric-looking arapaima.


An impossible wishlist

This is all very well, but are these charismatic yet seriously elusive species any easier to see in Guyana? Well, from my experience, they are.

On a short boat trip up the Essequibo River, both guides and guests alike were astonished to spot a male harpy eagle sitting in a lichen-festooned tree overhanging the water. Though young and so still quite small, he managed to look suitably disdainful as he flew off to a less public perch upriver, a massive iguana dangling from his strong talons.

Then, when our boat carried its star-struck occupants into dock at the Iwokrama Field Station, we were greeted by ‘Sankar’, the resident black caiman.

That night, having seen two of Guyana’s finest in one afternoon, we were optimistic about our chances of spotting a jaguar. Iwokrama is rapidly gaining an international reputation for its healthy jaguar population, and these beautiful cats are regularly spotted on the old red cattle road from the lodge.


A jaguar lies in wait, ready to ambush its prey


Living with jaguars

As night fell, we stood on the dusty road, peering hopefully into the thick forest, while Ron described his first encounter with a jaguar.

“When I was nine or ten, my friend and I were out shooting fish with arrows when we saw a jaguar slinking towards us. He licked his whiskers and I knew we were in trouble. We only had nine arrows left, so my friend – the best shot – fired first. He was shaking so much, they all flew wide. With our last arrow, I hit the cat in the neck!

The jaguar was not hurt but he was extremely annoyed – he whirled and slunk off into the forest. We knew better than to relax and, sure enough, as we crept down the path home, we spotted him lying on a branch, waiting to ambush us. Two days later, our best racing donkey was eaten by a jaguar.”

Sadly, it seemed our luck had run out – we did not see the jaguar that night, though a couple of tourists who came down the road shortly afterwards claimed to have seen a big male cross the road.


Wolves of the river

My optimism only slightly dented, I set my sights on seeing a giant river otter. Two hours up the beautiful Rupununi River took us to Karanambu Ranch, home of Diane McTurk, famous for rehabilitating orphaned giants back into the wild.

In a room decorated with tribal war clubs that had, in years gone by, welcomed David Attenborough and Gerald Durrell, Diane sipped rum punch and explained that she acquired her first orphan in 1985. ‘Frankincense’ was raised as a pet – he slept in a hammock and learned to fish in a bowl scooped out of the riverbank and filled with small fish. On his first visit to the river, he was severely hydrophobic until he realised he could swim.

Since Franki, Diane has returned more than 40 otters to the wild. The kits are slowly introduced to neighbouring families of wild otters in the hope that they will attract suitors and one day leave of their own accord with a new pack


Guyana is now one of the last strongholds of the giant otter


A hostile reception

Diane took us to see a family of giant otters living in a pond gilded with enormous Amazonian lilypads. We had just arrived when we heard a horse-like snorting. Raising my binoculars, I counted three, no, wait... six smooth brown heads swimming towards us.

Pausing a safe distance from the bank, the family glared at us, snorting and rearing out of the water, displaying their creamy throat patches. There were nine adults – a male, his females and their young – and they clearly objected to our presence. After a few minutes, we left them in peace and headed home thrilled.

So, the verdict? Well, three out of four top species isn’t bad at all – especially for such a small country. But will Guyana’s pristine forests and astonishing biodiversity still be unspoilt in 20 years time? I hope so.


Protected for the planet

A few months ago, Guyana’s President offered to preserve most of his country’s rainforest – an area the size of Britain – as a carbon-offset zone to assist the world’s battle against climate change. And though some people are sceptical, his good intentions are, in any case, enforced by the lack of infrastructure to support large-scale logging, gold and diamond-mining operations.

So, even if his resolution does waiver, hopefully the natural impediments to destruction will save Guyana’s green heart. And with hardly any roads and no beach resorts, I am optimistic that Guyana will remain one of the few wildernesses unspoilt by mass tourism, providing homes and jobs for Amerindians and a safe haven for some truly remarkable wildlife.





Giant river otter

  • ID: The largest otter species, up to 1.8m long with dense, water-repellent fur and pale throat patch. Large webbed feet. Hunts fish and crabs in packs.
  • Where: Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname are among the last strongholds for this endangered species. Look for day-resting sites and holts on the banks of the Rupununi River and in oxbow lakes. You may meet orphans at Karanambu Ranch.
  • When: Active year round during daylight.


Harpy eagle

  • ID: The biggest eagle in the Americas; dark grey with ash grey head, white belly and a crest of long feathers. Females up to twice as large as males, with 200cm wingspan.
  • Where: Occasionally seen crossing rivers or high in trees at Iwokrama, where it hunts mammals such as monkeys and sloths. Also from Iwokrama Canopy Walkway and in the Kanuku Mountains in the south-west.
  • When: All year round.



  • ID: The largest cat in the New World, the jaguar is short and stocky; each individual has different rosettes on its coat; males larger than females and can reach 1.8m long; adept at climbing and swimming.
  • Where: Throughout the forest, where the population is increasing, in the Kanuku Mountains and along the Rewa River.
  • When: Most often seen at dawn and dusk – the road to the Iwokrama Research Centre is a hotspot.


 Morpho butterfly

  • ID: A large butterfly with wings up to 20cm wide, brilliant blue edged with black; brown underside has eyespots as predator defence. In flight, flashes brown to blue, seemingly disappearing and reappearing.
  • Where: Near streams and in clearings throughout Guyana’s forests. Iwokrama is currently constructing a
  • butterfly farm.
  • When: Any time of year, though more common during wetter months.


Amazonian lily

  • ID: Also known as Victoria Amazonica; large leaves up to 2.5m in diameter, green with maroon undersides, protected from nibbling fish by 2.5cm spines. Flowers bloom at dusk and close about 9am; white the first night they open, turning pink the second night and dying the third night. Pollinated by beetles.
  • Where: On oxbows and bayous throughout Guyana, especially on the Rupununi.
  • Status: Blooms all year round.





Getting there

  • Sophie travelled with Cox & Kings. Alternative operators include Rainbow Tours, Andean Trails and Tucan Travel. Others are also available.
  • Flights from the UK take around 11 hours with a stopover in the Carribean.
  • The best time to visit is between September and April



  • Simple, comfortable lodges, ranches, rainforest resorts and camps, with just a few rooms.
  • Expect to eat baked fish or chicken with rice and salad, and lots of fresh fruit.
  • Be prepared to pay Western prices for rooms and services. You can’t buy Guyanese dollars in the UK, but most Georgetown hotels offer exchange services.


What to take

  • Guyana is hot and humid, with an average temperature of 27.5˚C, so take light, cool, casual clothing, a lightweight waterproof and sun protection. Carry plenty of bottled water.
  • Most beds have mosquito nets but you will still need insect repellent. Don’t forget to enquire about anti-malarials.



We use cookies to improve your experience of our website. Cookies perform functions like recognising you each time you visit and delivering advertising messages that are relevant to you. Read more here